Research Updates from Around the World

To highlight key findings and issues, we periodically summarize important studies and post them here. We also include papers presenting new information from ASEBA. Also see our basic references. (You will need the Adobe Acrobat Reader for some PDF files on this page and on our site. You may get a free copy of Adobe Acrobat.)

Publish Date Title Excerpt
Dopamine D4 Receptor Moderation of Dutch Youths’ Externalizing Problems Following Chronic Stressors

The TRacking Adolescents’ Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS; Zandstra et al., 2018) obtained multi-informant assessments of population and clinical samples of 1621 Dutch youths at ages 11, 13.5, and 16. Parents completed the CBCL/6-18, while youths completed the YSR at each assessment. Externalizing problems were measured as the sum of the DSM-oriented Oppositional Defiant Problems and […]

YSR Problem Scores and Substance Use Reported by Youths in Nepal

Many studies have reported significant associations between YSR scores and substance use in middle and high income countries. To test these associations in a low income country that is culturally quite different from countries where most mental health research is done, Karki et al. (2019) arranged for 408 12-18-year-old students at Nepalese urban and rural […]

Genetic and Environmental Effects on Conduct and Antisocial Personality Problems in Dutch Twins at Ages 9 to 65 Years

Genetic and Environmental Effects on Conduct and Antisocial Personality Problems in Dutch Twins at Ages 9 to 65 Years The Netherlands Twin Register (NTR) has been using ASEBA forms to assess a large proportion of twins born in the Netherlands since 1986. Many twins have been periodically re-assessed as they developed from childhood to adulthood. Adult […]

From Childhood Sexual Abuse to Adolescent Risky Behavior

It is well-established that childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is followed by increased rates of substance use and risky behavior in adolescence. The Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN) have provided data from multiple sites that make it possible to test mechanisms linking CSA to subsequent risky behavior. A team of LONGSCAN researchers analyzed […]

Aspects of Economic Disadvantage that Predict Internalizing and Externalizing Problems among Dutch 3-Year-Olds

Many studies have reported more problems for children from economically disadvantaged families than for children from more advantaged families. However, much remains to be learned about the aspects of economic disadvantage that raise risks for particular kinds of problems. Starting with pregnant women in Rotterdam, the Generation R Longitudinal Study measured many prenatal and postnatal […]

Effects of Birth Mothers’ and Adoptive Mothers’ Depression and Antisocial Characteristics on Adoptees’ Internalizing and Externalizing Scores

Many studies have found associations between parent and child characteristics. Although genetic models partition phenotypic variance into genetic and environmental influences, parents’ genetic and environmental influences are confounded when children are raised by their biological parents. Kerr et al. (2013) separated mothers’ genetic and environmental influences by analyzing associations of depressive and antisocial characteristics of […]

International Epidemiology of Child and Adolescent Psychopathology: Findings for Diagnoses and Dimensions in Many Societies

Two related articles have presented findings pertaining to child and adolescent psychopathology assessed with standardized diagnostic interviews (SDIs) and dimensional rating instruments in many societies. The first article reviewed findings on the prevalence of disorders identified by SDIs in epidemiological samples of >300 children in >5 societies (Achenbach et al., 2012). The percentage of children […]

Bisphenol A is Associated with CBCL Anxious/Depressed Scores and Listening Problems in Korean Children

Research has found that BPA affects neural circuits and behavior in rats and mice. Studies of humans have also found associations between prenatal BPA exposure and subsequent deviant problem scale scores on the CBCL (Perera et al., 2012). To test concurrent associations between BPA and both behavioral/emotional and learning problems in later childhood, Hong et […]

ADHD and Severity of Emotional Dysregulation

As research on ADHD has advanced, it has become clear that children who qualify for diagnoses of ADHD vary in many important ways. As an example, children diagnosed as having ADHD may have problems of aggression, anxiety, and depression as well as attention problems. A CBCL profile pattern of elevated scores on the Aggressive Behavior, […]

Prediction of Pathological Personality Traits from the CBCL Dysregulation Profile among Belgian (Flemish) Children

A pattern of CBCL/6-18 syndrome scale scores designated as the Dysregulation Profile (CBCL-DP) has been identified among children in multiple societies. The CBCL-DP is defined by elevated scores on the Anxious/Depressed, Attention Problems, and Aggressive Behavior syndromes. To test the ability of the CBCL-DP to predict subsequent personality trait scores, De Caluwe et al. (2013) […]

Multiple Facets of Cross-Informant Agreement

Meta-analyses of correlations between ratings of child, adolescent, and adult psychopathology by different informants have shown low to moderate levels of agreement between different informants. This means that no one informant is likely to provide precisely the same information as other informants. Instead, comprehensive assessment requires data from multiple informants, as well as other kinds […]

ASEBA DSM-5-Oriented Scales

The ASEBA DSM-oriented scales were initially developed by having experts from many societies identify ASEBA problem items that they judged to be very consistent with DSM-IV diagnostic categories. In order to revise the DSM-oriented scales on the basis of DSM-5 categories, 58 experts from 30 societies rated ASEBA problem items as being not consistent, somewhat consistent, or very […]

A Family-Focused Preventive Intervention for Mexican American Youths: Outcomes Reported by Parents, Teachers, and Youths

Millions of people leave their home societies to seek opportunities in other societies. Many immigrants to the United States come from Mexico. To reduce risks for substance use, internalizing, externalizing, and school problems among Mexican American youths, Gonzales et al. (2012) tested a family-focused intervention for Mexican American middle school students. The “Bridges to High […]

Problems Reported for Gender-Dysphoric Children and Adolescents by Teachers in Canada and The Netherlands

Despite increasing tolerance for nontraditional gender roles in many countries, it is important to identify problems for which gender-dysphoric children and adolescents may need help. Building on previous research that employed the CBCL to identify such problems in parents’ reports, Steensma et al. (2014) compared TRF scores obtained by 728 children (ages <12 years) and […]

Stress and Serotonin Transporter Genotype Predict Aggression in 20-Year-Old Australians

Previous research has revealed elevated risks for aggression among children who carry short alleles of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) and are exposed to stress. However, it has not been known whether the associations between stress, genotype, and aggression continue over the transition into adulthood, whether chronic and acute stress have different effects, or whether […]

Genetic and Environmental Effects on Attention Problems in 44,607 3 to 90-year-old Dutch Twins

Many studies have reported both genetic and environmental effects on attention problems. However, such studies have not tested the longitudinal stability of genetic and environmental effects over multiple developmental periods. The Netherlands Twin Register (NTR) is a unique resource that has been obtaining assessment data for thousands of Dutch twins since 1987. The NTR’s use […]

Multicultural Findings for Caregiver and Teacher Ratings of Preschoolers’ Behavioral, Emotional, and Social Problems

Previous Research Updates have reported multicultural findings for ASEBA ratings of 1½ -5- year-olds by their parents, 6-18-year-olds by their parents and teachers, and 11-18-year-olds by the youths themselves. New articles by Masha Ivanova, Leslie Rescorla, and international colleagues from 14 societies have compared syndromes and scale scores for ratings of 1½-5-year-olds by their daycare […]

Effects of Maternal Warmth and Corporal Punishment on Children in Eight Countries

An international team tested prediction of changes in scores on the CBCL and YSR Anxious/Depressed and Aggressive Behavior syndrome scales over 3 years for 1,196 children from eight countries (Lansford et al., 2014). The countries included China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, the Philippines, Thailand, and the U.S. At Time 1, mothers were interviewed about their […]

Inhibitory Control, Harsh Discipline, and Externalizing Problems among Chinese, Japanese, and U.S. 4-Year-Olds

Based mostly on findings in Western societies, it has been theorized that deficiencies in children’s inhibitory control, plus harsh parenting, lead to elevated levels of externalizing problems. To compare associations between these variables for children in Western and Asian societies, Olson et al. (2011) administered tests of inhibitory control to 155 4-year-olds attending preschools in […]

The CBCL Dysregulation Profile is Associated with Psychosocial Adversity and Impairment among Clinically Referred German Children

Multiple studies have identified a CBCL/6-18 profile characterized by high scores on the Anxious/Depressed, Attention Problems, and Aggressive Behavior syndrome. Designated as the “Dysregulation Profile,” it has been found to be associated with genetic factors and poor outcomes. To investigate psychosocial aspects of the environments of children manifesting the Dysregulation Profile and also to assess […]

Changes in Brazilian Mothers’ Reports of 4-Year-Olds’ Problems Over 11 Years

It is often assumed that children’s behavior is worse than it used to be. To test this assumption, it is necessary to use the same procedures to assess representative population samples of children at two or more widely separated points in time. This has been done with the CBCL, TRF, and YSR in the U.S. […]

Parent-Youth and Parent-Teacher Agreement on Children’s Mental Health Problems in Many Societies

Meta-analyses have revealed important discrepancies between problems reported for children by their parents, teachers, and the children themselves (Achenbach et al., 1987; De Los Reyes et al., 2015). In light of the cross-informant discrepancies, mental health professionals understand that no single informant’s reports are sufficient for comprehensive assessment of child and youth problems. Instead, parent, […]

Resup Externalizing problems are dimensional in Dutch TRAILS sample

Walton et al. (2011) applied dimensional, categorical, and hybrid models to analyses of CBCL and YSR scores obtained by an epidemiological sample of 2,027 Dutch youths at ages 11.1 and 13.6 years. For dimensional analyses, a latent trait model described the probability that each particular problem item would be endorsed on the basis of the […]

Discrepancies between Parent and Youth Reports of Youths’ Antisocial Behavior: Comparisons of Canadian Sexual and Nonsexual Offenders

Some theorists view adolescent sexual offenses as manifestations of general juvenile delinquency that can be explained by antisocial personality traits. Other theorists focus on factors specific to sexual offending, such as prior sexual abuse. Skilling, Doiron, and Seto (2011) assessed 12- to 20-year-old males (78 sexual and 295 nonsexual offenders) referred by Canadian courts for […]

Syndromes of Self-Reported and Collateral-Reported Adult Psychopathology in Many Societies

Ivanova et al. (2015a, b) performed confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) on Adult Self-Reports (ASRs) and Adult Behavior Checklists (ABCLs) completed to assess 18-59-year-olds. The ASRs were completed by 17,152 adults in 29 societies. The ABCLs were completed by 8,582 adults in 18 societies to describe a person they knew, such as a spouse, partner, family […]

Assessment of Parent and Child Psychopathology in Child Mental Health Services

Services for children may benefit from assessing the children’s parents in order to identify parental problems relevant to helping the children. This is because parents and children may have similar problems, parents’ problems may affect children’s functioning or complicate treatment of the children, children’s problems may affect parental functioning, and parents may need treatment in […]

Internet Gaming Disorder and YSR Scores for Youths in Six European Countries

Concerns have arisen about possible addiction to the Internet. In response to these concerns, DSM-5 has added Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) as a proposed diagnostic category. Nine symptom criteria are listed, such as “preoccupation with Internet games.” At least five of the criterial symptoms must be present to qualify for IGD. To assess the prevalence […]

Multicultural Comparisons of Syndromes and Scales Scored from Parents’ Reports of Preschoolers’ Behavioral and Emotional Problems

Important advances have been made in multicultural evidence-based assessment of psychopathology among school-age children and adolescents. Building on previous standardized assessments of psychopathology at ages 6 to 18 in dozens of societies, Masha Ivanova, Leslie Rescorla, and international colleagues in 23 societies on 5 continents have tested syndromes and scale scores for behavioral and emotional […]

The CBCL Dysregulation Profile at Age 8 Predicts Substance Use, Suicidality, and Functional Impairment Among German Adults

A CBCL profile pattern characterized by extreme elevations of the Anxious/Depressed, Attention Problems, and Aggressive Behavior syndromes has been interpreted as reflecting severe affective and behavioral dysregulation. To determine whether this pattern predicts adult psychopathology, Holtmann et al. (2011) used the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID) and several other instruments to compare age 19 […]

Prenatal Stressors as Predictors of Australian Children’s CBCL Scores at Ages 2-14

The Western Australia Pregnancy Cohort Study was designed to test effects of particular kinds of maternal stress events during pregnancy on subsequent behavioral problems of the offspring. Robinson et al. (2011) reported prediction of children’s CBCL scores at ages 2, 5, 8, 10, and 14 years from several kinds of independent stress events (events beyond […]

Genetic Relations between Competence Scales and DSM-Oriented Scales among Italian Twins

CBCL/6-18 competence scales assess children’s adaptive strengths in terms of involvement in activities, social relationships, and school. Both competence and problems are important for documenting children’s needs for help, for designing interventions to strengthen competencies and/or to reduce problems, and for evaluating outcomes of interventions. However, the competence and problem scales are not merely mirror […]

Problems Reported for Toddlers from Dutch and Immigrant Families in the Netherlands

Around the world, millions of people are emigrating to host societies very different from their home societies. The children of immigrant families may be affected by the challenges that prompt families to leave their home societies and the challenges of adapting to host societies. Like many large urban areas, Rotterdam, Netherlands, has thousands of immigrants […]

Omega-3 Effects on Child and Parent Behavior Problems in Mauritius

There is evidence that poor nutrition may increase risks for behavior problems and that improving nutrition may reduce problems. To experimentally test the effects of omega-3 on children’s behavior problems, Raine et al. (2015) conducted a randomized controlled trial in which 100 8-16-year-old Mauritian children received a daily fruit drink containing 1000 mg. of omega-3 […]

Adult Outcomes of Three Treatments for Childhood Anxiety Disorders

Numerous studies have compared short-term outcomes for different treatments of childhood disorders. However, few studies of child treatments have compared adult outcomes. Saavedra et al. (2010) compared outcomes from childhood through adulthood for 67 U.S. children who had received (a) group cognitive behavioral therapy (GCBT) that used peer reinforcement and modeling to facilitate exposure-based procedures or individual […]

Identification and Correlates of the Dysregulation Profile in Parents’ and Teachers’ Ratings of Dutch Preschoolers

Multiple studies have reported identification and correlates of a pattern of CBCL/6-18 syndrome scale scores designated as the Dysregulation Profile (DP). The DP is defined by elevated scores on the Anxious/Depressed, Attention Problems, and Aggressive Behavior syndromes of the CBCL/6-18. Children identified as having the DP have elevated rates of several disorders, suicidality, and substance […]

Prediction of Dutch Adults’ Psychiatric Disorders from CBCL Scores Obtained 24 Years Earlier

In 1983, a representative general population sample of Dutch 4- to 16-year-olds was assessed with CBCLs completed by their parents. The children were then reassessed periodically with the CBCL, TRF, YSR, and other measures, culminating 24 years later with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) and three sections of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule (DIS), when […]

Genetic and Environmental Effects on Inattention, Hyperactivity/Impulsivity, and Sluggish Cognitive Tempo among Italian Twins

Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorders (ADHD) are typically diagnosed in terms of Inattention Problems (INP) and Hyperactivity/Impulsivity Problems (HIP). However, considerable evidence supports an additional set of attentional problems designated as Sluggish Cognitive Tempo (SCT), characterized by lethargy, daydreaming, and confusion. To test relations between genetic and environmental influences on SCT, INP, and HIP, Moruzzi et al. […]

Effects of Bullying on the Behavioral/Emotional Problems of British Twins: Family Warmth and Home Atmosphere Promote Resilience

Research on bullying has revealed high prevalence rates and adverse consequences in many countries. However, less is known about protective factors that might reduce adverse effects of bullying on children’s behavioral and emotional problems. To test effects of bullying and of protective factors, Bowes et al. (2010) assessed 1,116 twin pairs with the CBCL and […]

CBCL Withdrawn/Depressed Syndrome Scores are Associated with Error-Related Brain Activity in OCD

Research has revealed enlarged error-related negativity (ERN) in people with OCD. ERN is a negative deflection of an event-related potential that peaks within 100 milliseconds after an incorrect response. Enlarged ENTs apparently reflect overactive performance monitoring involving an alarm signal to increase cognitive control. Hanna et al. (2016) tested associations between the ERN and CBCL […]

The Dysregulation Profile among Flemish Children and Adolescents: Parent, Teacher, and Self-Ratings and Links with Self-Harm and Suicidal Ideation

A “Dysregulation Profile” defined by elevated scores on the ASEBA Anxious/Depressed, Attention Problems, and Aggressive Behavior syndromes has been identified in multiple studies. Deutz et al. (2016) analyzed mothers’ and fathers’ CBCL ratings and teachers’ TRF ratings of 697 children living in Flanders, the Dutch-speaking region of Belgium, at a mean age of 7.9 years. […]

Nine-Year Outcomes for Young Middle Eastern Refugees Living in Denmark

Millions of children and youths around the world have become refugees from war, persecution, and ethnic cleansing. Many of the young refugees have been accepted for resettlement in host countries. To optimize care for young refugees, it is important to evaluate their functioning in host countries and to identify factors associated with good versus poor […]

Multicultural Comparisons of Self- and Collateral-Reported Adaptive Functioning, Personal Strengths, and Psychopathology for Ages 18-59

The Adult Self-Report (ASR) assesses adaptive functioning, personal strengths, and diverse behavioral, emotional, social, and thought problems and substance use on the basis of self-reports by 18-59-year-olds. The parallel Adult Behavior Checklist (ABCL) assesses most of the same aspects of functioning on the basis of reports by collaterals (spouse, partner, family member, friend, therapist, etc.) […]

Associations of Maternal PTSD and Depression with Problems of Preschoolers Exposed to the World Trade Center Attacks

Although events such as the World Trade Center (WTC) attacks are apt to be traumatic for people of all ages, research has shown that preschoolers who had experienced other traumatic events prior to the WTC attacks were more likely to develop behavioral/emotional problems than children exposed only to the WTC events (Chemtob et al., 2008, […]

Relative Immaturity (RI) and ADHD from Childhood to Adulthood in Swedish Twins

Immaturity has been implicated as a possible component of ADHD. To test the possible role of immaturity, Brikell et al. (2016) obtained Swedish parents’ ratings of 1,302 pairs of 8-9-year-old twins’ immaturity relative to average children of the same age. The ratings of relative immaturity (RI) were analyzed in relation to parents’ CBCL ratings of […]

Resilience and Psychopathology among Former Ugandan Child Soldiers

Of the adverse conditions faced by children, one of the most appalling is the conscription of tens of thousands of children to serve in armed conflicts. In order to help former child soldiers, it is necessary to identify their particular problems and strengths, plus associated risk and protective factors. Although outcomes of very adverse experiences […]

Evidence for a Continuum of Attention Problems in ADHD Among Dutch Twins

According to DSM-IV, there are three types of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Primarily Inattentive (PI), Hyperactive/Impulsive (H/I), and Combined type (CT). The DSM criteria specify that 6 out of 9 PI symptoms and/or 6 out of 9 H/I symptoms are required to qualify for a diagnosis of ADHD. The fact that any 6 symptoms […]

Genetic Influences on a General Psychopathology Factor in Parent-, Teacher-, and Self-Reports for Dutch Children

Recent studies have suggested that a general factor underlies associations among diverse aspects of psychopathology. Newmann et al. (2016) tested the presence and heritability of a general psychopathology factor in parent-, teacher-, and self-reports for 2,115 Dutch 6-8-year-olds participating in the longitudinal Generation R (R = Rotterdam) study. The use of parent-, teacher-, and self-reports […]

Adult Outcomes for Girls with Childhood ADHD

ADHD is commonly assumed to affect far more boys than girls. However, diagnostic criteria for ADHD may be less able to detect attention problems among girls because some ADHD criteria reflect characteristics that are more annoyingly conspicuous and have higher population base rates among boys than girls. To learn more about ADHD in girls, Stephen […]

National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being: Foster Care Changes in Relation to Internalizing and Externalizing Problems

Many foster children experience multiple placements. Although multiple placements tend to be associated with elevated levels of behavioral and emotional problems, it is not clear whether changes in placements increase problems or vice versa. To test predictive pathways between number of placements and children’s problems, Aarons et al. (2010) used data for 500 foster children […]

Mothers’ Stroking of Their Babies: Subsequent Effects on British Children’s Internalizing and Externalizing Problems

It has been found that prenatal stress causes subsequent emotional and behavioral problems in animals, but that maternal grooming can reduce such problems. To explore analogous phenomena in humans, a British team analyzed relations between mothers’ anxiety during pregnancy, their subsequent stroking of their babies, and the children’s problems at age 3.5 years (Pickles et […]

Interactive Effects of Structured Parenting and Genetic Risk on Toddlers’ Behavior Problems

Most mental health workers acknowledge that behavior problems are shaped by both environmental and genetic factors. Leve et al. (2009) tested the hypothesis that a particular kind of environmental input-structured parenting-would have different effects on children at high vs. low genetic risk for psychopathology. They did this by studying adopted children whose birth parents had […]

Predictors of Young Adult Antisocial Behavior and Psychopathic Personality among Swedish Twins

Psychopathic personality (also known as sociopathic personality and antisocial personality) refers to “individuals who have a manipulative interpersonal style, lack empathy and remorse, and lack the ability to consider the consequences of their behaviour” (Forsman et al., 2010, p. 45). The hypothetical construct of psychopathic personality implies enduring characteristics that predict antisocial behavior. However, research is needed to determine […]

CBCL Scores as Early Phenotypic Expressions of Genes Associated with Schizophrenia and Educational Attainment

Advances in genetic research reveal that complex human traits are influenced by many genes, each having very small effects. To take account of the multiplicity of genetic influences, statistical models derived from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are used to aggregate genetic factors associated with particular traits into polygenic scores for those traits. Two such traits […]

Testing TRF Scores, Cognitive Measures, and Socioeconomic Status as Predictors of Reading Impairment among French Children

Much of the literature on reading impairment is based on Anglophone populations. Because there are so many gaps and inconsistencies in relations between the spelling and pronunciation of English words, the findings from Anglophone populations may not be generalizable to other languages. To test prediction of reading impairment in French children, Fluss et al. (2009) […]

Persistent versus Periodic Social Victimization as Predictors of Adjustment

Children may experience various forms of bullying over various periods. The term “social victimization” refers to behaviors that are intended to harm the victims’ social status, relationships, or self-esteem. Among school children, such behaviors include social exclusion, malicious gossip, and friendship manipulation. Experiences of social victimization have been found to be associated with various signs […]

Developmental Relations Between Brain Development and Internalizing/Externalizing Problems

Early elevations of Internalizing and Externalizing problems are often found to predict later problems. To determine how early Internalizing/Externalizing problems might be associated with brain development, Muetzel et al. (2018) analyzed CBCL Internalizing and Externalizing scores obtained at ages 6 and 10 in relation to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data at ages 8 and 10 […]

Effects of Computerized Cognitive Rehabilitation on Ugandan Pediatric Cerebral Malarial Survivors

Cerebral malaria is an especially severe form of malaria that affects 575,000 African children under the age of 5. Many of the survivors suffer long-term cognitive and behavioral impairments. Bangirana et al. (2009) tested the effects of computerized cognitive training on the neuropsychological and behavioral functioning of Ugandan children who had survived cerebral malaria. Children […]

Genetic and Environmental Effects on Autistic Traits in Dutch Twins

The term Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) has come into use to reflect findings that autistic features are manifest in degrees and in various combinations, rather than simply being present versus absent. Genetic research has revealed that ASD—like many other complex human traits—is affected by numerous genetic factors, each of which may have very small effects. […]

Prediction of Age 30 Internalizing and Externalizing Scores from Family Arguments and Violence During Adolescence

The Simmons Longitudinal Study began with assessment of children entering kindergarten in a New England community. Longitudinal assessments over three decades included numerous family and child variables. Pardis et al. (2009) used data obtained when the participants (N = 346) were adolescents to test prediction of subsequent Internalizing and Externalizing scores on the Young Adult […]

Norwegian Mothers’ Prenatal Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor (SSRI) Antidepressant Use and Their Children’s Subsequent Functioning

SSRIs are widely used to treat depression, including during pregnancy. Because SSRIs cross the placenta and the blood-brain barrier, questions arise about possible effects on fetal development. To provide more refined tests of previously reported associations between prenatal SSRI exposure and children’s subsequent functioning, Norwegian researchers compared age 1½-, 3-, and 5-year CBCL/1½-5 scores, as […]

Like Parent, Like Child? Tracking Childhood Problems from Parents to their Children in a Dutch Longitudinal Study

Many studies have reported associations between parenting behavior and children’s problems. However, a longitudinal study that started with a large general population sample of Dutch children in the 1980s has made it possible to test predictive associations from the childhood behavioral and emotional problems of people in one generation to the subsequent childhood problems of […]

Effects of Neighborhood Characteristics on British Children’s Antisocial Behavior

Much of the research on the development of antisocial behavior focuses on child and family variables. However, a growing literature considers the possible additional effects of neighborhood variables. Effective analysis of interplays among child, family, and neighborhood variables require good measures of each set of variables, plus large, representative samples of participants and complex statistical […]

Parent and Teacher Ratings of Australian Aboriginal Children with versus without Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

High rates of alcohol consumption have been found among pregnant Australian Aboriginal women. Previous studies had shown elevated ASEBA scores for children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD), but Tsang et al (2017) compared parents’ CBCL/6-18 versus teachers’ TRF ratings of Aboriginal children with and without FASD, plus multiple other risk factors. Neither the parents […]

Effects of Childcare Quality on Children with Difficult Temperaments

The NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development began with children born at 10 U.S. hospitals. During infancy, the children were assessed with observations of mother-child interactions, interviews with mothers, and rating forms completed by mothers. For children who received nonmaternal child care, the quality of the care was assessed by observers who […]

Associations between Dutch Children’s Psychiatric Diagnoses and their Parents’ Adult Self-Report (ASR) Problem Scores

For many reasons, parents of children referred for mental health services may also need help with their own behavioral, emotional, social, or thought problems. To help mental health providers document parental problems, parents can be asked to complete broad spectrum self- and collateral-assessments such as the Adult Self-Report (ASR) and Adult Behavior Checklist (ABCL). To […]

Effects of Early Adversities on Trajectories of Child and Adult Problems among International Adoptees in the Netherlands

Early abuse and neglect are often implicated in children’s subsequent problems. However, because many children who experience early abuse and neglect also experience adverse environments during their later years, it has been hard to evaluate the duration of the effects of early adversities per se. A longitudinal study of children from many countries who were […]

Effects of Family Structure and Serotonergic Genes on Affective Problems in Italian Children

Previous studies have investigated family structure and serotonergic genes as separate risk factors for depression. An Italian research team has now reported findings on the interplay between these risk factors. To investigate this interplay, Nobile et al. (2009) tested the effects of two-parent vs. one-parent family structure and two serotonergic polymorphisms (TPH2 G-703T and 5-HTTLPR) […]

Pre- and Postnatal Risk Factors for Australian Preschooler’s Mental Health

The Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort Study, commonly known as the Raine Study, began with pregnant women seen for care at various clinical facilities in Perth. Parents subsequently completed the preschool CBCL when their children were 2 years old and the CBCL/4-18 (revised in 2001 as the CBCL/6-18) when their children were 5 years old. Because […]

Developmental Relations between Chinese Parenting Styles, Children’s Temperament, Negative Life Events, Coping Efficacy, and Externalizing Problems

Most longitudinal studies of relations between parent and child characteristics, on the one hand, and children’s behavior problems, on the other, have been done in Western societies. Consequently, tests of the generalizability of findings are needed for children in other societies. A longitudinal study of 382 children living in Beijing assessed relations between multiple parent […]

Prenatal Exposure to Tobacco Smoke as a Predictor of Dutch Children’s Externalizing and Internalizing Problems at ages 5 to 18 Years

Numerous studies have tested associations between maternal smoking during pregnancy and subsequent problems of the offspring. However, most such studies have assessed a narrow range of problems at relatively young ages. A team of Dutch researchers tested relations between prenatal exposure to tobacco smoke and the CBCL Internalizing and Externalizing scores of a general population […]

8-Year Course of Behavioral/Emotional Problems Among Brazilian Children

Longitudinal studies have revealed similar levels of continuity in behavioral/emotional problems reported for children in several economically developed countries. However, less is known about the continuity of behavioral/emotional problems among children in developing countries. The Brazilian Birth Cohort Study has provided one of the few tests of the continuity of behavioral/emotional problems reported for children […]

Associations of Parental and Grandparental Major Depressive Disorders with Preschoolers’ Behavioral and Emotional Problems

The Oregon Adolescent Depression Project (OADP) initially assessed students from nine Oregon high schools on three occasions from 1987 to 1999. The participants who subsequently had children were assessed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Disorders (SCID) and data were collected on the parents and relatives of the participants. When the children of the […]

Associations between Alcohol Use and YSR Scores in a National Sample of Taiwan Youth

Substance use is often found to be associated with rule-breaking behavior among adolescents. To test associations between various levels of alcohol use and self-reported problems, Chen et al (2008) analyzed responses by 11,943 15- to 18-year-olds to the YSR and to detailed questions about their consumption of alcohol. The youths attended randomly selected schools throughout […]

Associations of CBCL/1.5-5 Scores with Autism and Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs)

Diagnoses of autism and ASDs have become increasingly common. Clinical evaluations often involve extensive observations, psychological testing, medical procedures, interviews with family members, and consultations with multiple professionals. Such evaluations are typically instigated when concerns are raised by pediatricians, preschool teachers, welfare workers, daycare providers, or family members. Because concerns may be raised about many […]

CBCL/6-18 Syndrome Structure for Chinese Girls Adopted by Canadian and U.S. Parents

Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) have shown that parent, teacher, and self-ratings in many societies form patterns corresponding to the syndromes derived from ratings mainly of U.S. children by U.S. raters (Ivanova, 2007a, b, c). Dedrick, Tan, and Marfo (2008) tested the CBCL/6-18 syndrome structure for 516 6- to 15-year-old girls born in China but adopted […]

Effects of Variations in Caregiving on Cognitive Functioning and Behavior Problems in a U.S. National Sample of Neurodevelopmentally At-risk Children

Neurodevelopmental impairment is a risk factor for later cognitive functioning and behavior problems. However, subsequent caregiving may also affect outcomes for at-risk children. Sara R. Jaffee (2007) tested the hypothesis that sensitive, stimulating caregiving would improve outcomes in a U.S. national sample of 1720 at-risk children. She did this by analyzing predictive associations between initial […]

The Mediating Role of Language in Relations between Social Cognition and Externalizing Psychopathology: Findings for Children Seen in Canadian Clinics

Previous studies have shown that interventions designed to improve social problem solving may be followed by reductions in externalizing behavior problems. However, to be helped by these interventions, children need to understand verbal communication and to express themselves verbally. Canadian researchers sought to test the following hypotheses regarding relations between syntactic language, social cognitive development, […]

Trajectories of YSR Scores, Their Predictors, and Their Correlates Among American Indian Youths

American Indian Youths are often reported to have high rates of mental health problems. However, not all Indian youths have significant problems, and problem levels may manifest important developmental variations and correlates. Variations in trajectories of problems and the predictors and correlates of different trajectories were identified by researchers using data from the American Indian […]

Problems Reported by Mothers of Pacific Island 2-Year-Olds Born In New Zealand

Many societies today include multiple ethnic groups. People from numerous Pacific Island groups have long lived in New Zealand. To assess the levels of problems among children of different Pacific Island backgrounds, the Pacific Island Family Study (PIF; Paterson, Carter, Gao, & Perese, 2007) is following Pacific Island children born at Middlemore Hospital in Auckland, […]

Testing the CBCL/6-18, TRF, and YSR Syndromes in Many Societies

The 2001 editions of the CBCL/6-18, TRF, and YSR syndromes were derived from a combination of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of samples that were drawn largely from the U.S. To determine whether ratings of problems in other societies would fit the syndromes derived mainly from U.S. samples, Masha Y. Ivanova and colleagues from many […]

Multicultural Comparisons of CBCL/6-18, TRF, and YSR Scores

Applications of uniform standardized assessment procedures to population samples of children in different societies make it possible to statistically compare problems reported in the different societies. L. A. Rescorla and colleagues from dozens of societies collaborated to compare CBCL/6-18 scores for 55,508 children in 31 societies, TRF scores for 30,957 students in 21 societies, and […]

Multicultural Understanding of Child and Adolescent Psychopathology

Most research and theory regarding psychopathology have been limited to a handful of societies. To advance understanding of psychopathology beyond these few societies, it is necessary to systematically assess the relevant phenomena across many societies. Such assessment requires that the same standardized procedures be applied to representative samples of populations from multiple societies. When the […]

Effects of Syndrome Co-Occurrence (Comorbidity) on Treatment Outcomes

“Comorbidity” (the occurrence of two or more disorders in the same individual) has been a popular topic since it was discovered that many individuals meet DSM criteria for multiple disorders. Efforts to develop and evaluate treatments focused on particular childhood disorders, such as ADHD, have been greatly complicated by the difficulty of finding enough children […]

Relations Between Personality Structure and Psychopathology Among Belgian Children

The fourth edition of the American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-IV) specifies that diagnoses of personality disorders should seldom be made before the age of 18. However, many studies have demonstrated predictive relations between childhood problems and subsequent adult psychopathology, including personality disorders. To determine whether maladaptive aspects of childhood personality structure are […]

Psychopathology Among German Adolescents Whose Mothers Have Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD)

Many studies report findings for adults who are diagnosed as having BPD. However, few studies report findings for the offspring of people who have BPD. It would not be surprising to find higher rates of problems among the offspring of parents having major disorders such as BPD. Yet, to draw conclusions about associations between particular […]

CBCL Profile Patterns Obtained by Spanish Children with Depressive Disorders, Conduct Disorders, or Comorbid Depressive and Conduct Disorders

Many children who meet criteria for a particular diagnosis also meet criteria for other diagnoses. To determine whether children who meet criteria for both depressive and conduct disorders differ in important ways from children who meet criteria for only one of these categories of diagnoses, Ezpeleta et al. (2006) identified 382 8- to 17-year-olds attending […]

Clinic Plus Internet Delivery of Cognitive-Behavior Therapy for Australian Children with Anxiety Disorders

The Internet is increasingly used to deliver various components of mental health services, including cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for adults. To test the feasibility and efficacy of partially delivering CBT for child anxiety disorders via the Internet, an Australian research team randomized 72 7-14-year-olds to receive group CBT at a university clinic (designated as the […]

Premorbid Attention Problems Moderate Effects of Traumatic Brain Injury

Survivors of childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI) often suffer negative long-term outcomes, including attention problems and cognitive deficits. Although severity of TBI is a major factor influencing outcomes, premorbid functioning also influences outcomes. Poor premorbid functioning appears to exacerbate the effects of TBI, whereas good premorbid functioning helps to buffer the effects of TBI. This […]

Longitudinal Findings on Correlates of Three ADHD Candidate Gene Polymorphisms from Childhood to Adulthood

Using data obtained in a longitudinal study of ADHD, Russell Barkley and colleagues (2006) have tested behavioral and neuropsychological correlates of genes that have been hypothesized to be associated with ADHD. The longitudinal study began in 1978 when 158 4- to 12-year-olds identified as hyperactive and a matched community control group of 81 children were […]

Prediction of Internalizing and Externalizing Problems from Age 6 Attachment Behavior among French Canadian Children

Insecure attachment behaviors during children’s first year have often been viewed as precursors to later problems. However, relations between later attachment behaviors and subsequent problems have received less far attention. To test relations between classification of children’s attachment behaviors at age 6 and problems 2 years later, a team of Canadian researchers first conducted laboratory […]

Stability and Outcomes of Suicidal Thoughts and Behavior among Swiss Youths at Ages 13, 16, and 20 Years

Cross-sectional studies have identified concurrent correlates of suicidality among youths. However, longitudinal studies of representative samples are needed to determine the developmental course and outcomes of suicidal thoughts and behavior. To track the course, correlates, and outcomes of suicidality from early adolescence through young adulthood, a team of researchers at the University of Zurich analyzed […]

Changes in Problems Reported for Children Whose Mothers Were Treated for Depression

Many studies have found elevated rates of problems among children whose parents have psychiatric disorders. Multiple genetic and environmental factors could contribute to associations between child and parent psychopathology. Whatever their causes, these associations raise the question of whether effective treatment of parents’ disorders would be followed by changes in their children’s problems. To answer […]

Relations between Reading Achievement and Antisocial Behavior in Young British Twins: Tests of Environmental and Genetic Hypotheses

Elevated rates of antisocial behavior have been found among children who are poor readers. However, it has not been clear whether antisocial behavior interferes with learning to read, whether poor reading skills raise risks for antisocial behavior, or whether these different kinds of problems are related in other ways. Using a national longitudinal sample of […]

Possible Explanations for Links Between Low Socioeconomic Status (SES) and Psychopathology

Research in many societies has revealed higher rates of psychopathology among people of lower SES than people of higher SES. For adults, SES is typically measured in terms of the adults’ educational and/or occupational attainments. The importance of SES is not merely as an index of income, as higher rates of psychopathology are associated with […]

Pathways to Helping Troubled Children in the Netherlands

It has often been found that many children with mental health problems do not receive professional help for them. The reasons may include unavailability of services, financial obstacles, parents’ lack of awareness or motivation, lack of appropriate referral pathways, and use of alternative kinds of help. In the Netherlands and several other countries, general practice […]

Relations Between Corporal Punishment and Children’s Problems in Six Cultures

Studies have reported that corporal punishment is associated with elevated levels of Externalizing behavior problems. Because the studies have used mainly North American white samples, questions arise about whether corporal punishment has similar associations with Externalizing problems in cultures with different norms for such punishment. To find out, an international team of researchers investigated physical […]

Relations of Family Poverty to Problems Reported by Parents and Teachers for Ages 2 to 8.5 Years

The U.S. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development’s (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD) has yielded many findings on factors affecting children’s development. These findings include relations between poverty and both cognitive development and behavioral/emotional problems from age 2 to third grade when the children averaged 8.5 years of […]

Youth and Parent Alliances with Therapists: Effects on Processes and Outcomes of Mental Health Services

Relationships between therapists and the people they treat have often been hypothesized to affect the outcomes of mental health services. To test the possible effects of both youth- and parent-reported alliances with therapists, Hawley and Weisz (2005) had 65 7- to 16-year-olds and their parents separately complete scales assessing positive and negative aspects of alliances […]

Multiple Informants Are Needed to Assess Adult Psychopathology

It is widely accepted that assessment of child psychopathology requires data from multiple informants, such as mothers, fathers, teachers, and the children themselves. However, assessment of adult psychopathology seldom employs data from people who know the adults who are being assessed. Would findings for adult psychopathology be different if they included reports by people who […]

Identifying “Inattentive” and “Combined” Types of ADHD Among Puerto Rican School Children

Many studies have attempted to distinguish between types of ADHD in samples of Anglophone children. To test the distinction between the “Inattentive” type (IT) and “Combined” hyperactive-impulsive and inattentive type (CT) of ADHD among Puerto Rican children, Bauermeister et al. (2005) used a variety of assessment procedures to diagnose school children in the San Juan […]

Reciprocal Influences Between Marital Conflict and Children’s Problems in British Biological and Step Families

Associations are often found between marital conflict and children’s problems. Although it is sometimes assumed that marital conflict causes children’s problems, it is also possible that children’s problem contribute to marital conflict and that other factors contribute to both. The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) initially focused on 14,000 women living in […]

Intergenerational Transmission of Depression Among Australian 15-Year-Olds

Interpersonal stress may be a risk factor for depression among the offspring of depressed women. Hammen, Shih, and Brennan (2004) tested the following hypotheses concerning depression among 816 Australian 15-year-olds whose mothers had been assessed for depression several times since their pregnancies with the children: (a) Maternal depression (and depression in the maternal grandmothers) contributes to […]

Parental Neuroticism and Major Affective Disorders as Risk Factors for Children in Quebec, Canada

Epidemiological studies indicate that many people experience major affective disorders (MADs) at some time in their lives. Both genetic and nongenetic factors contribute to the development of MADs. A research team at the University of Montreal designed a longitudinal study to elucidate interactions between parental MADs and other parental characteristics as risk factors for children’s […]

Interactions between Effects of Quantity and Quality of Child Care on Children From Low Income Families

Strong opinions have been expressed about the pros and cons of out-of-home child care. In order to evaluate the actual effects, it is necessary to take account of the quantity and quality of child care, as well as many characteristics of the children and their families. A longitudinal study entitled “Welfare, Children, and Families: A […]

Economic Stress and Parental Characteristics as Predictors of Children’s Problems in Mexican American and European American Families

There are numerous cultural and ethnic variations in the U.S. Many of these variations are associated with economic differences, as well as with differences in acculturation and in the length of time families have lived in the U.S. Hispanic people constitute the largest U. S. ethnic minority group, and Mexican Americans are the largest Hispanic […]

Predictors of Problems Reported for 4-Year-Old Brazilian Children

A team of researchers from Brazil and Uruguay tested a variety of predictors of CBCL/4-18 problem scores in a sample of 634 children drawn from a study of 5,304 hospital births in Pelotas, Brazil (Anselmi et al., 2004). A prevalence rate of 24% was found for CBCL Total Problems scores in the combined borderline and […]

Cumulative Risk Factors for Problem Behaviors Among English and Indian Children Living in the United Kingdom

Using Urie Bronfenbrenner’s ecological model as a theoretical framework, Atzaba-Poria et al. (2004) sought to determine whether risk factors operate in a cumulative manner in relation to behavior problems. The researchers also sought to determine whether cumulative risk variables at different ecological levels provide differential prediction of Externalizing, Internalizing, and Total Problems scores on the […]

Relations of Differences in Parenting to Behavior Problems Among Norwegian and Sami (Laplander) Children

Punitive parenting has often been implicated as a contributor to children’s behavior problems. However, the effects of particular child-rearing practices may differ in relation to a variety of familial and cultural characteristics. To compare correlates of children’s problems in two ethnic groups living in northern Norway, Javo et al. (2004) conducted extensive interviews with parents […]

Associations of Child and Family Problems with Migraine and Tension Headaches Among Finnish Children

To examine associations of different types of headaches with child and family problems, Anttila et al. (2004) asked all 1,409 sixth graders in Turku, Finland to complete questionnaires regarding headaches. For the 1,135 (81%) who completed questionnaires, 154 (14%) were identified as having migraine headaches and 138 (12%) were identified as having tension headaches, according […]

Heritability of Attention Problems Among Dutch Twins Assessed Longitudinally at Ages 3, 7, 10, and 12

Various studies have reported genetic effects on attention problems assessed at different ages. However, there has been less research on the developmental course of genetic effects on attention problems. Using data from the Netherlands Twin Registry, Rietveld et al. (2004) analyzed preschool CBCL scores obtained at age 3 and school age CBCL scores obtained at […]

Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) of the CBCL/6-18 Syndrome Structure in Turkish Samples

The correlated 8-factor model on which the 2001 CBCL syndromes are based was derived from English language data on children from Australia, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Although research with the CBCL has been published from 62 cultures, there have been few tests of the 2001 correlated 8-factor model with large representative samples […]

Ratings of Relations Between DSM-IV Diagnostic Categories and Items of the Older Adult Self-Report (OASR) and Older Adult Behavior Checklist (OABCL). (PDF file)
Subtypes of DSM Conduct Disorder in a National Sample of Australian Boys

Conduct problems are of great concern to mental health workers, educators, parents, and society as a whole. Major investments have been made in efforts to understand, prevent, and treat conduct problems. The DSM-IV lists 15 criterial symptoms for Conduct Disorder (CD). Any 3 of the 15 symptoms can qualify a youth for the diagnosis. Consequently, […]

Effects of Father’s Antisocial Behavior and Father’s Presence in the Home on British Twins’ Conduct Problems

A team of researchers in Britain examined the effects of father’s presence in a sample of 1,116 5-year-old same-sex twin pairs. The sample was selected so that one-third of the children were from “high-risk” families due to the mother having had her first child before she was 21 years old. History of antisocial behavior in […]

Problems Reported by Youths from Australia, China, Israel, Jamaica, the Netherlands, Turkey, and the USA

An international team of researchers compared YSR scores obtained by 7,137 11- to 18-year-olds in general population samples from 7 cultures. Differences in mean Total Problems scores yielded a small effect size (5% of variance) across the 7 cultures. Slightly larger cross-cultural effects were found for some syndromes, while slightly smaller effects were found for […]

Suicidality and Psychopathology Among Incarcerated Russian Juvenile Delinquents

Incarcerated adolescents may be at particular risk for suicidal ideation and behavior for a variety of reasons. To test characteristics of incarcerated adolescents, their parents, and their histories that may be predictive of suicidality, Ruchkin et al. (2003) assessed 271 14- to 19-year-old inmates of a Russian detention center. The assessments included the Schedule for […]

Problems Reported by Dutch Youths and Turkish Immigrant Youths Living in the Netherlands

A team of Turkish and Dutch researchers compared YSRs scored for Dutch 11- to 18-year-olds (N = 1,098) and Turkish 11- to 18-year-olds (N = 363) living in the Netherlands. In addition to ethnicity, numerous family and youth characteristics were analyzed in relation to the YSR scores. After controlling for characteristics such as socioeconomic status, […]

A Unique Controlled Study of the Effects of a Disaster On Problems Reported by Dutch Youths

There have been numerous efforts to assess the effects of disasters on people’s mental health. However, because disasters are unpredictable and uncontrollable, research is lacking on changes in mental health problems from pre-disaster to post-disaster assessment of people exposed to a disaster versus control groups of similar people who were not exposed to the disaster. […]

Neighborhood Socioeconomic Disadvantage (NSD) and 2-Year Changes in Problems Among Dutch Youths

Many studies have shown higher rates of problems for children living in low SES families than for children living in higher SES families. It has been hypothesized that neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage (NSD) contributes to the relatively high rates of problems found for low SES children. Because low SES families cannot afford to live in advantaged […]

Genetic Effects on Antisocial Behavior Among 5-Year-Old British Twins Assessed by Multiple Informants

Previous studies have reported significant heritabilities for aggressive behavior in children and adolescents. Most of these studies have used data from only one source, such as ratings by parents. Because questions have been raised about potential biases in data obtained from parents and other kinds of informants, a team of researchers at the Institute of […]

Clinician, Parent, and Teacher Contributions to Predictions of Outcomes for Child Psychiatric Outpatients in the Netherlands

Mental health evaluations of children typically include interviews with clinicians. However, little is known about the contributions that clinicians’ interviews can make to predicting the subsequent outcomes of children’s problems. To identify predictive relations between clinicians’ ratings from the Semistructured Clinical Interview for Children and Adolescents (SCICA) and subsequent outcomes, a Dutch child psychiatrist, Dr. […]

Are American Children’s Problems Still Getting Worse?

One often hears that kids’ behavior seems to be getting worse. Abundant publicity about the misdeeds of today’s young people certainly supports this impression. However, to determine whether the prevalence of problem behaviors is actually changing, it is necessary to assess representative samples of the population using the same standardized methodology at different points in […]

Applications of the CBCL and TRF to Dutch Children with Intellectual Disability (ID)

A team of Dutch researchers tested the applicability of the CBCL and TRF to 1,041 6- to 18-year-olds attending nonresidential schools for children with ID in the educable range (IQ 60 to 80) or trainable range (IQ 30 to 60; Dekker et al., 2002). They compared scores and psychometric data for the ID children with […]

Genetic and Environmental Effects on Aggressive and Rule-Breaking Behavior: Longitudinal Findings for Swedish Twins in Childhood and Adolescence

Diagnostic systems such as DSM-IV typically combine aggressive behavior problems with rule-breaking behavior into a single diagnostic category of Conduct Disorder. However, empirically based studies have identified a syndrome of aggressive behavior (e.g., fighting, attacking people) and a separate syndrome of rule-breaking behavior (e.g., lying, stealing, truancy). Although aggressive behavior often correlates significantly with rule-breaking […]

Two-Year Outcomes for Italian Children Receiving Psychodynamic Psychotherapy vs. Community Services for Internalizing Problems

A team of researchers and clinicians at the University of Pisa, Italy, compared outcomes for 29 6- to 10-year-olds who received an 11-week psychotherapy protocol and 29 comparison children who qualified for the protocol but were referred to community services because slots were unavaible for the psychotherapy protocol. Although the groups were not randomly assigned, […]

Ratings of Relations Between DSM-IV Diagnostic Categories and Items of the Adult Self-Report (ASR) and Adult Behavior Checklist (ABCL) PDF.
3-Year Prediction of Poor Outcomes from Parent, Teacher, and Clinician Ratings of Child Psychopathology in the Netherlands

A group of Dutch researchers tested the predictive value of parent, teacher, and clinician ratings of child psychopathology over a 3-year period (Ferdinand et al., 2003). Parent and teacher ratings were obtained with the CBCL and TRF. Clinician ratings were obtained with the Semi-structured Clinical Interview for Children and Adolescents (SCICA). Ninety six children referred […]

A Randomized Comparison of Drama Group Therapy with Curriculum Studies Groups Among British School Children

To test a school-based therapy intervention, McArdle et al. (2002) asked teachers to identify high-risk students in a high unemployment area of North Tyneside, England. The risk factors included scholastic under-performance, family problems, poor nourishment and care, impaired peer relationships, and behavioral/emotional difficulties. Groups of eight students were then randomly allocated to 12-week programs consisting […]

Behavior Problems and Family Stress Associated with Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) and Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) in German Boys

Children with mental retardation or chronic physical illness can be very challenging for families. To compare behavioral problems and family stresses associated with mental retardation, chronic illness, and the absence of both retardation and illness, a team of German researchers used the CBCL, a structured psychiatric interview, and measures of parental stress, coping, and social […]

Family Drawings and Problems Among British Children Living with Single Mothers, Step Parents, and Birth Parents

Led by Judy Dunn of the Institute of Psychiatry’s Social Genetic and Developmental Psychiatry Research Center, a team of British researchers studied family drawings done by 180 5- to 7-year-olds (Dunn, O’Connor, & Levy, 2002). The children lived with a single mother, a step parent and a birth parent, or both birth parents. The researchers […]

Problems Reported for Children Born to Young Mothers in the United Kingdom

Although the mean age of childbearing is increasing in most western societies, teen births remain high and financial support for young mothers remains low in the United Kingdom (UK) and the United States. To find out whether young motherhood was followed by elevated rates of childhood problems, Dr. Terrie Moffitt and the Environmental Risk Study […]

Can Major Depression Be Diagnosed in Preschoolers?

The DSM-IV criteria for Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) are designed mainly for adults. Because several of the criteria are not appropriate for very young children, it has not been clear whether preschoolers manifest disorders that correspond to the DSM-IV diagnostic construct of MDD. To evaluate developmentally modified criteria for MDD, a team of researchers led […]

Associations Between Sleep Problems and Behavior Problems from Ages 4 to 15

Alice M. Gregory and Thomas G. O’Connor (2002) investigated associations between sleep problems and behavior problems in children participating in the Colorado Adoption Project. The CBCL was completed by adoptive parents of 245 children and biological parents of 245 children at ages 4, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, and 15 years. Scores on […]

Using CBCL Scores At Age 5 to Predict Psychiatric Diagnoses 1.5 Years Later in the Netherlands

Dutch researchers administered a translation of the DICA-R interview to the parents of 403 children 1.5 years after the children had been assessed with the CBCL/4-18 at age 5. Three groups were selected from a school-based cohort of 1,317 children screened at age 5: Group E–CBCL Externalizing score >90th percentile and/or Attention Problems score >95th […]

Sleep, Neurobehavioral Functioning, and Behavior Problems Among Israeli Children

A team of Israeli researchers tested associations between actigraphic measurement of sleep variables, performance on the Neurobehavioral Evaluation System (NES), and the Hebrew version of the Child Behavior Checklist completed by parents of 135 2nd, 4th, and 6th grade children. Children classified as “poor sleepers” on the basis of the actigraphic sleep measurements performed significantly […]

Three-Year Outcomes for Preschool Children with Disruptive Behavior and Adaptive Disability

A research team led by ADHD expert Russell Barkley (2002) evaluated 3-year outcomes for 169 children identified as having high vs. low levels of disruptive behavior (DB) when they were screened for entrance into Worcester, Massachusetts kindergartens. The children were then reassessed 3 years later to determine whether “Adaptive Disability” (AD) assessed at the initial […]

Consequences of Divorce as Reflected in Parent, Teacher, and Self-Reported Problems Among Urban Chinese Children

A previous study by Liu et al. (Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 2000, 39, 896-903) revealed significantly higher CBCL and TRF problem scores for children in divorced than non-divorced families living in rural areas of China. A new study by Dong, Wang, and Ollendick (2002) has reported similar findings for children living […]

PTSD and Teacher-Reported Problems of Bosnian Children Exposed to Violent and Nonviolent War Experiences

In one of the very few studies of children during actual exposure to war conditions, Maureen Allwood, Debora Bell-Dolan, and Syed Arshad Husain (2002) assessed 791 Bosnian children during the siege of Sarajevo. Interviewers obtained children’s scores on the PTSD Reaction Index, the War Experience Questionnaire, the Impact of Events Scale, and the Children’s Depression […]

Violence Exposure, PTSD, and YSR Scores Among Russian Juvenile Delinquents

A team of Russian, American, and Belgian psychiatrists studied relations between DSM-IV diagnoses of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), reports of witnessing violence and being victimized by violence, and YSR scores among 370 incarcerated Russian male delinquents. Of the 331 who reported at least one traumatic event, 24.8% met full PTSD criteria, while 41.6% met at […]

National Evaluation of Mental Health Services for Children and Their Families

Brigitte Manteuffel, Robert Stephens, and Rolando Santiago (2002) have published an overview of the National Evaluation of the Comprehensive Community Mental Health for Children and Their Families Program. This program has established systems of care for mental health services in 67 U.S. communities. The CBCL and YSR were used to assess children at intake and […]

14-Year Prediction of DSM-IV Adult Diagnoses from Childhood CBCL Scores in the Netherlands

Dutch researchers Marijke Hofstra, Jan van der Ende, and Frank Verhulst (2002) tested the ability of CBCL scores obtained on a random sample of 1,578 children to predict diagnoses made from DSM-IV interviews 14 years later, when the participants were 18 to 30 years old. Numerous statistically significant predictive relations were found, many of which […]

Attributions of Blame for Maltreatment as Predictors of YSR Internalizing and Externalizing Scores among Canadian Adolescents

Canadian researchers Robin McGee, David Wolfe, and James Olson (2001) tested adolescents’ attributions of blame for various kinds of maltreatment as predictors of YSR scores among 160 adolescents recruited from a child protection agency. Nearly all the adolescents had experienced multiple kinds of maltreatment, including sexual abuse, physical maltreatment, witnessing family violence, neglect, and emotional […]

Why Are We Here at the Clinic? Parent versus Child Reports of Children’s Problems at Entry into Treatment

Many studies have revealed low to moderate agreement between different informants’ reports about children’s problems. Agreement is usually highest between pairs of adults who play similar roles with respect to the children, such as pairs of parents and pairs of teachers. Agreement is lower between adults who play different roles and see children in different […]

Relations Between CBCL Scores and DSM-IV ADHD Subtypes in an Australian National Sample

Graetz et al. (2001) tested relations between CBCL scale scores and DSM-IV diagnoses of Inattentive, Hyperactive-Impulsive, and Combined ADHD subtypes in a nationally representative sample of 3,597 Australian 6- to 17-year-olds. DSM-IV diagnoses were made from parents’ reports on the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Version IV (DISC-IV). Parents also completed the CBCL and the […]

Longitudinal Stability of Preschool Oppositional Defiant Problems

To test stability and change in preschoolers’ oppositional defiant problems, John Lavigne and his co-workers (2001) had parents complete CBCLs for 510 preschoolers in 68 Chicago-area pediatric practices. The children were subsequently reassessed with the CBCL and other instruments in four waves, culminating when the children averaged 8 years old. Diagnoses of Oppositional Defiant Disorder […]

Prenatal, Postnatal, and Current Maternal Depressive Symptoms as Predictors of CBCL and TRF Scores in Finland

It has often been reported that children whose mothers are depressed have more problems than children whose mothers are not depressed. This association between mothers’ depression and children’s problems could arise for many reasons. Examples include the effect of maternal depressive symptoms on the children; genetic vulnerability to depression on the part of the children […]

Internalizing and Externalizing Problems Among Young Adults Who Had Depressive or Drug Disorders in Adolescence

In a long-term longitudinal study of psychopathology from age 5 to 21, Giaconia et al. (2001) tested age 21 outcomes for participants who had been diagnosed as having major depression or drug disorders at age 18. Most no longer met diagnostic criteria for the same disorders at age 21. However, those who had met diagnostic […]

Long-Term Stability of CBCL Scores in Boys with ADHD

Led by ADHD expert Joseph Biederman, a team of Harvard University researchers tested the stability of CBCL scores obtained over a 4-year interval for boys diagnosed as having ADHD. The boys were initially seen either in a pediatric psychopharmacology program at Massachusetts General Hospital or in the pediatric service of a Health Maintenance Organization. They […]

A Test of Rater Biases in Mothers’ vs. Fathers’ Ratings of 3-Year-Old Dutch Twins

Assessment of children must deal with limited agreement among sources of data. For example, correlations between reports by mothers, fathers, teachers, and other informants are typically modest to moderate. The differences between informants’ reports may reflect such factors as differences in the behavior they observe or differences in their judgment of the same behavior. Differences […]

Ratings of Relations Between DSM-IV Diagnostic Categories and Items of the CBCL/6-18, TRF, and YSR (PDF)

Download PDF of Study

Prediction of Dutch Children’s DSM-IV Diagnoses at Ages 10-11 from CBCL Scores and Other Variables at Ages 2-3

In a longitudinal study of a general population sample of 332 Dutch children, Judi Mesman and Hans Koot (2001) tested prediction of DSM-IV diagnoses at ages 10-11 from ages 2-3 CBCL ratings, physical health problems, stressful experiences, and family risk factors. When all the candidate predictors were tested in multiple logistic regressions, ages 2-3 Internalizing scores […]

Prediction of Substance Use by Dutch Adults from CBCL Scores

Using a randomly selected sample of Dutch children, Robert Ferdinand, Marije Blum, and Frank Verhulst (2001) tested the ability of CBCL scores to predict self-reports of high levels of alcohol, tobacco, and drug use obtained on the Young Adult Self-Report (YASR) at ages 18 to 22. High levels of substance use were defined as amounts that […]

Prediction of Externalizing Scores and Involvement with Antisocial Peers from Age 5 to 14

Robert Laird and colleagues used path analyses to test longitudinal relations between Externalizing problems, peer rejection, and involvement with antisocial peers. Participants were 400 children of diverse SES and ethnic backgrounds assessed at multiple sites. The data included: (a) age 5 CBCL Externalizing scores; (b) ages 6-9 mean of CBCL and TRF Externalizing scores each year, plus peer rejection […]

Coercive Attachment Style, Permissive Parenting Practices, and Marital Dissatisfaction Significantly Predict Externalizing Behaviors in Preschoolers Ages 2-5.

Using the Externalizing Scale of the CBCL as a dependent measure, DeVito and Hopkins (2001) reported that preschoolers are likely to manifest externalizing behavior problems when their parents are experiencing marital problems, when parents vacillate between being overly permissive and overly punitive, and when parents’ relationships with their children are characterized by arguing, teasing, and […]

Behavior Problems of Children with Deployed versus Non-deployed Navy Mothers

Increasing proportions of military personnel are women, including over 20% of new recruits. Many of these women have children. Although previous studies have assessed the effects of fathers’ deployment on children, Michelle Kelley, Ellen Hock, and colleagues have reported one of the first systematic assessments of problems reported for children who experienced lengthy separations while […]

Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) of Dutch Group Care Workers’ CBCL Ratings of Children in Residential Treatment

ASEBA forms are completed by many kinds of informants in many settings throughout the world. The CBCL is designed to be completed by people who serve as surrogate parents in institutional settings, as well as by biological, adoptive, and foster parents. To test the factor structure of group care workers’ CBCL ratings, a team of […]

Predictors of Persisting versus Remitting Conduct Disorder in Boys with ADHD

Because comorbid conduct disorders are associated with the poorest outcomes in children with ADHD, it is important to identify significant predictors of persistent conduct disorders. Biederman et al. (2001) tested predictors of persistent conduct disorders in a 4-year follow-up of boys diagnosed with ADHD at ages 6-17. Three groups were defined according to their intake […]

Associations Between Enuresis and Other Problems Among Chinese Children

The CBCL/4-18 and TRF were used in an epidemiological study of 3,344 6- to 16-year-olds in Shandong Province, China (Liu et al., 2000). The 90th percentile on the distribution of Total Problems scores was used as a clinical cutpoint. Compared to children who attained nocturnal urinary control before age 4, significantly more children who attained […]

Parent- and Self-Reported Problems of German Children With Growth Deficiency of Different Etiologies

Some studies of children with growth deficiency have found elevated rates of behavioral and emotional problems, whereas other studies have not. The differences in findings might reflect differences in the settings where children were evaluated, differences in the etiologies of growth deficiency, differences in informants, or differences in assessment instruments. To address these variations, Steinhausen […]

Measuring and Predicting Outcomes of Psychiatric Hospitalizations in England

There is increasing pressure to perform rigorous evaluations of the outcomes of services. The pressure to perform outcome evaluations is especially acute for psychiatric hospitalizations of children because of the severity and life-threatening nature of the disorders, the high cost of hospital care, and controversies over whether hospitalizations help or hurt disturbed children. There are […]

Associations of Internalizing and Externalizing Scores with Psychiatric Diagnoses at Ages 2 and 3

After long neglect, behavioral and emotional problems of preschoolers are receiving increased attention. Because the DSM has provided few categories for early childhood disorders, another system has been developed that is known as the Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health and Developmental Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood (DC 0-3; National Center for Infants, Toddlers, and […]

Continuity Between Behavioral/Emotional Problems at Ages 2-3 and Externalizing Disorders at Ages 5-6

Using a sample of 235 low SES children, Shaw, Owens, Giovannelli, & Winslow (2001) tested the relations between parent-rated problems on the CBCL/2-3 administered when the children were 24 and 42 months of age and DSM-IV disruptive behavior disorder (DBD) diagnoses based on K-SADS-E maternal interviews when the children were 5½. Children with no DBD […]

Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis and Autonomic Nervous System Activity in Disruptive and Normal Dutch Children

Dutch researchers (van Goozen, Matthys, Cohen-Kettenis, Buitelaar, & van Engeland, 2000) tested the hypothesis that children with disruptive behavior disorders (DBD) manifest underarousal of the HP and the ANS, particularly in response to stress. Participants included 26 8-12-year-olds diagnosed with ODD and CD and 26 age- and gender-matched normal controls (NC). The DBD group obtained […]

Social Adjustment of Israeli Adolescents At-Risk for Schizophrenia

Researchers from the Jerusalem Infant Development Study (Hans, Auerbach, Asarnow, Styr, and Marcus, 2000) demonstrated the utility of the Youth Self-Report (YSR) for assessing youths at risk for schizophrenia. They used the YSR and the Social Adjustment Inventory for Children and Adolescents (SAICA) (John et al., 1987) to assess 27 adolescent offspring of schizophrenics, 30 […]

The Language Development Survey (LDS)

The Language Development Survey (LDS) (Rescorla, 1989) uses parents’ reports of vocabulary and word combinations to identify language delays in children at ages 18-35 months. It can be completed independently by a parent in about 10 minutes and requires only fifth grade reading skills. Over the past 20 years, the LDS has been used with […]

Ratings of Relations Between DSM-IV Diagnostic Categories and Items of the CBCL/1½-5/LDS and C-TRF

Thomas M. Achenbach & Levent Dumenci University of Vermont  Leslie A. Rescorla Bryn Mawr College Abstract The purpose of this project was to determine the degree to which experienced mental health professionals would judge particular CBCL/1½-5/LDS and C-TRF items as being consistent with particular DSM-IV categories. Child psychiatrists and psychologists who had published research on children’s behavioral/emotional […]

TRF Scores for Children Prenatally Exposed to Cocaine and Other Risk Factors

Dr. Virginia Delaney-Black and a research team from Wayne State School of Medicine and the Detroit Public Schools conducted an extensive follow-up study of children whose mothers had been screened for substance use during pregnancy. Screening procedures included extensive structured interviews; prenatal and neonatal medical records; and testing of mothers and their infants for prenatal […]

A 14-Year Predictive Study of Behavioral/Emotional Problems from Childhood to Adulthood in the Netherlands

Using a Dutch general population sample (N = 1,615), Marijka Hofstra, Jan van der Ende, & Frank Verhulst (2000) analyzed relations between CBCL/4-18 scores obtained at ages 4-16 and scores on the Young Adult Behavior Checklist (YABCL) and Young Adult Self-Report (YASR) obtained at ages 18-30. Predictive correlations between initial CBCL scores and final YABCL and […]

Parent- and Teacher-Reported Problems of Children in Divorced Chinese Families

Although far lower than in western countries, divorce rates in Mainland China are rising rapidly. To assess possible associations between divorce and children’s problems, a team of Chinese and Japanese researchers used CBCL/4-18 and TRF data from a stratified random sample of 4,862 Chinese children (Liu et al., 2000). Children of divorced parents were demographically matched […]

MRI Findings on Brain-Behavior Relations in Boys with ADHD

In a study at Massachusetts General Hospital, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) brain scans revealed that boys meeting criteria for ADHD differed from non-ADHD control boys with respect to the following brain characteristics: Reversed asymmetry of the head of the caudate; smaller volume of the caudate head; and smaller volume of the white matter of the […]

Associations Between Sleep Parameters and Problem Scores in Finnish Children

A Finnish study tested associations between sleep parameters measured objectively by activity monitors and TRF and CBCL problem scores for physically healthy 7- to 12-year-olds (Aronen et al., 2000). Highly significant associations were found between sleep time and TRF scores. In particular, the shorter the sleep time, the higher the scores for the Aggressive Behavior, Attention […]

Using the CBCL to Identify Problems Among Children of Cocaine and Opiate Dependent Parents

To test associations between parental drug abuse and children’s problems, Catherine Stanger of the University of Vermont and colleagues from other universities compared children of drug abusers (CDA) with children who were referred for mental health services (RC) and nonreferred children (NRC). Cocaine and opiate dependent parents in treatment completed the Child Behavior Checklist for […]

Genetic, Environmental, and Rater Effects on CBCL Attention Problems, Aggressive Behavior, and Anxious/Depressed Syndrome Scores

Research is increasingly demonstrating genetic influences on many aspects of human functioning. However, because genetic factors are unlikely to account for all variations in functioning, it is essential to analyze the interplay of genetic, environmental, and methodological effects on specific measures of functioning. Using CBCL ratings of 984 8- to 12-year-old twins participating in the […]

Correlations of the CBCL with Reciprocal Social Behavior in Children with and without Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD)

Deficits in reciprocal social behavior are hallmarks of Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD), including Asperger’s Disorder and Autistic Disorder. There has recently been a tremendous upsurge in reported cases of PDD. However, it is unclear whether the true prevalence of PDD is increasing, whether detection of cases is improving, or whether milder deficits in social behavior […]