The 2001 editions of the CBCL/6-18, TRF, and YSR syndromes were derived from a combination of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of samples that were drawn largely from the U.S. To determine whether ratings of problems in other societies would fit the syndromes derived mainly from U.S. samples, Masha Y. Ivanova and colleagues from many societies collaborated in performing confirmatory factor analyses of CBCL/6-18 ratings of 58,051 6-18-year-olds from 30 societies, TRF ratings of 30,030 6-15-year-olds from 20 societies, and YSR ratings of 30,243 11-18-year-olds from 23 societies.
The societies were in Asia, Africa, Australia, the Caribbean, Eastern, Western, Southern, and Northern Europe, and the Middle East. According to the Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA), which is considered the best fit index for the type of data and analyses used, the data from all societies met criteria for good or at least adequate fit to the 2001 syndromes scored from all three forms. This means that parent-, teacher-, and self-ratings in all the societies formed patterns of co-occurrence among problems that fit the 2001 syndromes.
For all three forms, the syndromes are designated as Anxious/Depressed, Withdrawn/Depressed, Somatic Complaints, Social Problems, Thought Problems, Attention Problems, Rule-Breaking Behavior, and Aggressive Behavior. Previous factor analyses of the TRF showed that teachers’ ratings of the Attention Problems syndrome could be effectively represented in terms of two subsyndromes designated as Inattention and Hyperactivity-Impulsivity. These subsyndromes are similar to the DSM-IV Inattentive and Hyperactive-Impulsive types of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).
To test these subsyndromes of the TRF Attention Problems syndrome in teachers’ ratings from 20 societies, Ivanova et al. did confirmatory factor analyses of a hierarchical model in which the Attention Problems syndrome subsumed the Inattention and Hyperactivity-Impulsivity subsyndromes. Teachers’ ratings from all 20 societies were found to fit this hierarchical model of an Attention Problems syndrome that subsumes Inattention and Hyperactivity-Impulsivity subsyndromes.
The Ivanova et al. multicultural findings thus support the separate Inattention and Hyperactive-Impulsive scales scored from the TRF, as well as the eight syndromes scored from the CBCL/6-18, TRF, and YSR. Coupled with the findings summarized in the Research Update titled “Multicultural Comparisons of CBCL/6-18, TRF, and YSR Scores,” the Ivanova et al. findings provide research support for scoring the syndromes for many cultural groups and for using the ASEBA Module for Ages 6-18 with Multicultural Options.
References: Ivanova, M.Y., Achenbach, T.M., Dumenci, L., Rescorla, L.A., Almqvist, F., Bilenberg, N., Bird, H., Chen, W.J., Dobrean, A., Döpfner, M., Erol, N., Fombonne, E., Fonseca, A.C., Frigerio, A., Grietens, H., Hannesdottir, H., Kanbayashi, Y., Lambert, M.C., Larsson, B., Leung, P., Liu, X., Minaei, A., Mulatu, M.S., Novik, T.S., Oh, K.J., Roussos, A., Sawyer, M., Simsek, Z., Steinhausen, H-C., Weintraub, S., Winkler, C.M., Wolanczyk, T., Yang, H-J., Zilber, N., Zukauskiene, R., Verhulst, F.C. (2007). Testing the 8-syndrome structure of the Child Behavior Checklist in 30 societies. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 36, 405-417.
Ivanova, M.Y., Achenbach, T.M., Rescorla, L.A., Dumenci, L., Almqvist, F., Bilenberg, N., Bird, H., Broberg, A., Dobrean, A., Döpfner, M., Erol, N., Forns, M., Hannesdottir, H., Kanbayashi, Y., Lambert, M. C., Leung, P., Minaei, A., Mulatu, M. S., Novik, T., Oh, K.J., Roussos, A., Sawyer, M., Simsek, Z., Steinhausen, H-C., Weintraub, S., Winkler, C. M., Wolanczyk, T., Zilber, N., Zukauskiene, R., & Verhulst, F. C. (2007). The generalizability of the Youth Self-Report syndrome structure in 23 Societies. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 75, 729-738.
Ivanova, M.Y., Achenbach, T.M., Rescorla, L.A., Dumenci, L., Almqvist, F., Bathiche, M., Bilenberg, N., Bird, H., Domuta, A., Erol, N., Fombonne, E., Fonseca, A., Frigerio, A., Kanbayashi, Y., Lambert, M., Leung, P., Liu, X., Minaei, A., Roussos, A., Simsek, Z., Weintraub, S., Wolanczyk, T., Zubrick, S., Zukauskiene, R., & Verhulst, F.C. (2007). The Generalizability of Teacher’s Report Form Syndromes in 20 Cultures. School Psychology Review, 36, 468-483.