Observational Assessments

Test Observation Form (TOF) – Ages 2-18

Ability and achievement tests pose significant challenges for children. The Test Observation Form (TOF) is a standardized form for rating observations of behavior, affect, and test-taking style during testing sessions for children aged 2 to 18.

The TOF enhances the value of test scores by documenting test examiners’ observations of children’s behavior during testing.

The TOF includes 125 items for rating children’s problems during individual ability and achievement testing. Each item is rated on a 4-point scale. The TOF Profile displays raw scale scores and T scores for ages 2 to 18.

Hand-scoring is available.

The TOF has the following features:

  • Quickly documents examiners’ observations without requiring written reports.
  • Scales are normed on 3,943 children, with separate norms for boys and girls ages 2-5, 6-11, & 12-18.
  • Profile is scored on five empirically based syndromes derived from factor analyses of 3,400 TOFs, a DSM-oriented Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Problems scale, plus Internalizing, Externalizing, & Total Problems.
  • Mean test-retest reliability was .80 across all TOF scales.

TOF Scales

Empirically Based Syndromes Scales (derived from factor analyses of TOFs for 3,400 children):

  • Withdrawn/Depressed
  • Oppositional
  • Language/Thought Problems
  • Attention Problems
  • Anxious

DSM-Oriented ADH Problems Scales

  • Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Problems scale with Inattention and Hyperactivity-Impulsivity subscales

The following TOF Products are available: